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BENEFITS OF PROPANE OVER LPG

S.No. BENEFIT VIRTUE PROPANE LPG
1 SAFER FUEL (oC) HIGHER AUTO IGNITION TEMPERATURE 468 365
2 HIGHER VAPOR OFF TAKE (oC) LOWER BOILING POINT -42.07 -0.5 TO -20
3 ELECTRICITY SAVINGS VERY LOW VAPORIZER REQUIREMENT LOWER BOILING POINT ALMOST ELIMINATES NEED OF VAPORIZER VAPORIZER IS REQUIRED
4 NO FREQUENT BURNER SETTING UNIFORM COMPOSITION PURE COMPOUND MIXTURE OF PROPANE AND BUTANE. COMPOSITION OF GAS VARIES WITH THE LIQUID LEVEL IN THE TANK.
5 QUANTITY SAVING HIGHER CALORIFIC VALUE 12034 KCAL/KG 11800 KCAL/KG
6 LESS EXHAUST LOSSES LESS AIR REQUIRED 1:24 1:32
7 LESS MAINTENANCE NIL SOOT CLEANER COMBUSTION LEADS TO LOWER MAINTENANCE MAINTENANCE HIGHER THAN PROPANE BECAUSE QUALITY VARIES WITH THE SUPPLIER
8 SUITABLE FOR COLD AREAS (oC) LOWER BOILING POINT -42.07 -0.5 TO -10
9 NO CONDENSATION IN THE PIPE LINE HIGHER VAPOR PRESSURE HIGHER V.P. OF PROPANE ELIMINATES CHANCES OF CONDENSATION OF GAS IN THE PIPE LINE CHANCES OF CONDENSATION  ARE ALWAYS THERE WITH LPG
10 HIGHER TANKS AND SYSTEM LIFE NIL REACTIVITY OF PROPANE TOWARDS MS PROPANE IS NOT REACTIVE TO MS THE MAIL MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION OF TANK AND PIPE LINE FEW HYDROCARBONS LIKELY TO PRESENT IN LPG ARE REACTIVE TO MS.
PROPERTIES OF PROPANE, BUTANE AND LPG

S.No.

Particulars

Propane

Butane

LPG

1.

Chemical Formulae C3H8 C4 H10 60%Butane,
40%Propane Mix

2.

Max. Vapour Pressure Saturated in Kg/Cm2
At 65 deg C
22.66 6.32 16.87  

3.

Gross calorific value in Kcal/kg. 11900 11800 11840

4.

Specific gravity (liquid) at 15 deg C Water =1 0.504 0.582 0.543

5.

Specific gravity (vapour) at 15 deg C air=1 1.50 2.01 1.75

6.

Ideal combustion Ratio (Air to Gas) 24 to 1 31 to 1 28 to 1

7.

Flammability limits (Upper) 9.60% 8.60% 9.1%

8.

Flammability limits (Lower) 2.15% 1.55% 1.90%

9.

Ignition Temperature (oC) 493-504 482-537 488-502

10.

Volume of gas produced per unit volume of liquid 274 233 250

11.

Volume of air required to burn unit volume of gas 23 30 26

12.

Volume of oxygen required to burn unit volume of gas 4.8 6.25 5.5

13.

Max. flame temperature (oC) 1979.44 1990 1985

14

Volatility : evaporation temp. in 0C for 95(oC) by vol. at 760 mm Hg pressure max. -38 2 2

15.

Boiling Points (oC) -45 -2 -22

16.

Percent Gas in air for Maximum Flame Temperature 4.4 3.5 3.9

17

Limits of Flammability          (Lower)
(% Gas in Gas /Air Mixture)
( Upper)
2.0 11.0                       1.9 8.5 1.95 9.75

COMPARATIVE OF LIQUID Vs GASEOUS FUELS The following table gives an idea of various advantages and savings of gas firing over liquid firing.

COMPARISON OF VARIOUS FUELS

Product LPG Electricity HSD LDO FO Kerosene
Unit 1 KG 1 KWH 1 LITER 1 LITER 1 KG 1 LITER
Calorific Value in kcal/unit 11840 860 10500 10000 9500 10420
Fuel efficiency % 80 100 62 60 50 60
Effective CV PER UNIT 9472 860 6510 6000 4750 6252
(NEW DELHI) 34 5 30 27 20 28
Costing for 10000 kcal 35.32 58.14 46.08 45.00 42.11 44.79
Savings % by using LPG   64.62 30.49 27.42 19.22 26.81

The difference of fuel efficiency shown in above table comprises of following parameters;

  1. Fuel Atomization
  2. Latent heat of vaporization
  3. Excess air
  4. Burning speed

Fuel atomization: Atomization of fuel needs external energy (by pump or compressor) to atomize before injecting the fuel in to the combustion chamber.  Heavier the fuel higher is the atomization cost. In case of gaseous fuel the same is absent, giving gaseous fuels an advantage of 2-3%. 

Latent heat of vaporization: During combustion process liquid fuel gets converted to vapor and the vaporization process takes away the latent heat of vaporization from the combustion heat. The latent heat of various liquid fuels varies from 90-110 Kcal/ Kg. Gaseous fuels does not require any vaporization hence no such heat loss from the combustion process.

Excess Air: All fuels except gases are burnt 100% only at slightly positive pressure. This characteristic of liquids and solids require combustion air being fed at more pressure than in case of gaseous fuels. Gaseous fuels are the only fuel which can be burnt 100% at atmospheric pressure, requires less combustion air pressure hence less stack losses. This characteristic of gaseous fuels gives an advantage of more than 10% over liquids in terms of less exhaust losses.

Burning Speed: The ability of gaseous fuels to burn faster than liquid and solid fuels ensure no unburnt fuel going in the exhaust. This further improves the efficiency of gaseous fuels especially in case of high consumption applications.  Apart from above mentioned direct advantages the use of gas entails indirect advantages as well, which can be summarized as below

  • Gas is the fuel of future
  • Low maintenance of equipments
  • Higher equipment life
  • Enhanced end product quality
  • Direct heating is possible
  • Environmentally very friendly
  • No spillage
  • No theft losses
  • No adulteration possible
  • No vaporization losses from the storage tank as in case of liquid fuels